- Brain tumors
- Vascular diseases of the brain
- Chronic subdural hematoma
- Traumatic brain injury
- Spinal tumors
- Lumbar disc herniation
- Cervical disc herniation
- Spinal fracture
Cranial and Peripheral Nerve Surgery:
- Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia
- Median nerve decompression
- Ulnar nerve decompression
- Stereotactic brain biopsy
- Valve placement for CSF drainage
- Cranial reversion in cases of chronic subdural hematoma
- Percutaneous Vertebral Ligation
- Lumbar microdiscectomy
- Anterior cervical microdiscectomy
- Posterior neck approaches
- Trigeminal neuralgia
- Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
- Ulnar neuritis.
Use of a surgical microscope
The greatest achievement that gave a great impetus to further development was the generalization of the application of the surgical microscope. Over the years, there has been an evolution and improvement of microscopes, in which the optics have been perfected, their mechanical movement has evolved with electromagnetic control, and elements of digital technology have been added.
Another cornerstone in improving surgical conditions in the brain is the introduction and gradual improvement of neuronavigation. The neurosurgeon is now able to use an aid to orient himself and better locate the lesions to be accessed, with principles analogous to those of GPS.
The application of continuous intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring enables us to record data monitoring the function of the brainstem nuclei and the motor and sensory pathways or the visual pathway.
In addition to the aforementioned neuromonitoring techniques, intraoperative corticography (mainly in epilepsy surgeries) or brain operations with the patient awake have made it possible to perform operations near noble areas of the brain, such as the speech center, the motor areas, the base of the skull, even in the brainstem. Areas that up until now were (and possibly even today for a large portion of neurosurgeons are) the “void” of the brain. Findings of tumors or other lesions in these areas were characterized as inoperable cases.